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Typically an MCU uses on-chip embedded Flash memory in which to store and execute its program. Storing the program this way means the MCU having a shorter start-up period and executing code quickly. The only practical limitation to using embedded memory is that the total available memory space is finite. Most Flash MCU devices available on the market have a maximum of 2 Mbytes of Program memory. This may prove to be a limiting factor, depending on the application.
What is Microcontroller?
A microcontroller is a chip optimized to control electronic devices. It is stored in a single integrated circuit which is dedicated to performing a particular task and execute one specific application. It is specially designed circuits for embedded applications and is widely used in automatically controlled electronic devices. It contains memory, processor, and programmable I/O.
What is a Microprocessor?
A microprocessor is a controlling unit of a micro-computer wrapped inside a small chip. It performs Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) operations and communicates with the other devices connected with it. It is a single Integrated Circuit in which several functions are combined.
KEY DIFFERENCES between Microprocessor and Microcontroller
- Microprocessor consists of only a Central Processing Unit, whereas Micro Controller contains a CPU, Memory, I/O all integrated into one chip.
- Microprocessor is used in Personal Computers whereas Micro Controller is used in an embedded system.
- Microprocessor uses an external bus to interface to RAM, ROM, and other peripherals, on the other hand, Microcontroller uses an internal controlling bus.
- Microprocessors are based on Von Neumann model Micro controllers are based on Harvard architecture
- Microprocessor is complicated and expensive, with a large number of instructions to process but Microcontroller is inexpensive and straightforward with fewer instructions to process.
|Microprocessor is the heart of Computer system.||Micro Controller is the heart of an embedded system.|
|It is only a processor, so memory and I/O components need to be connected externally||Micro Controller has a processor along with internal memory and I/O components.|
|Memory and I/O has to be connected externally, so the circuit becomes large.||Memory and I/O are already present, and the internal circuit is small.|
|You can’t use it in compact systems||You can use it in compact systems.|
|Cost of the entire system is high||Cost of the entire system is low|
|Due to external components, the total power consumption is high. Therefore, it is not ideal for the devices running on stored power like batteries.||As external components are low, total power consumption is less. So it can be used with devices running on stored power like batteries.|
|Most of the microprocessors do not have power saving features.||Most of the microcontrollers offer power-saving mode.|
|It is mainly used in personal computers.||It is used mainly in a washing machine, MP3 players, and embedded systems.|
|Microprocessor has a smaller number of registers, so more operations are memory-based.||Microcontroller has more register. Hence the programs are easier to write.|
|Microprocessors are based on Von Neumann model||Micro controllers arc based on Harvard architecture|
|It is a central processing unit on a single silicon-based integrated chip.||It is a byproduct of the development of microprocessors with a CPU along with other peripherals.|
|It has no RAM, ROM, Input-Output units, timers, and other peripherals on the chip.||It has a CPU along with RAM, ROM, and other peripherals embedded on a single chip.|
|It uses an external bus to interface to RAM, ROM, and other peripherals.||It uses an internal controlling bus.|
|Microprocessor-based systems can run at a very high speed because of the technology involved.||Microcontroller based systems run up to 200MHz or more depending on the architecture.|
|It’s used for general purpose applications that allow you to handle loads of data.||It’s used for application-specific systems.|
|It’s complex and expensive, with a large number of instructions to process.||It’s simple and inexpensive with less number of instructions to process.|
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